Kar, D. and Spanjers, J.

Flight Capital and Illicit Financial Flows to and from Myanmar: 1960-2013 - Washington DC Global Financial Integrity 2015 - 64p.

This study finds that confinement, seclusion, and economic instability along with entrenched governance deficits have characterised the country since independence. Totalling the flight capital numbers indicates that Myanmar has experienced largely unregulated financial movements of nearly US$120 billion over the period (a small portion of flight capital may be licit), while total illicit flows amounted to almost US$100 billion. This shows that insularity and isolation have led to a declining trend in trade openness.

Capital Flight, Illicit Wealth, Trade, Smuggling